HAR GOBIND ( 1595-1644, Guruship 1606-1644 )
Guru Har Gobind was born to Guru Arjan Dev on June 19, 1595 at Wadali,
a village near Amritsar. The period of Guru's early life is alluded
to in the previous chapter.
After the Martyrdom of his father (Guru Arjan),
the Guru caused the Adi Granth to be read by Bhai Buddha and the
musicians of the temple sang the Guru's hymns. This lasted for
ten days. When the final rites were over, Bhai Buddha started
the ceremony of Guruship. It should be remembered here that when
Guru Arjan's wife went to Bhai Buddha for boon of a son, she had
prepared the meals with her own hands, and she took bread with
onions. Bhai Buddha while eating had said," The Guru is the
owner of the storehouse, but I have received an order to open
it. As you have given me food to my heart's content, so shall
you have a son to your heart's content. He shall be very handsome
and brave, possess spiritual and temporal power, become a mighty
hunter, ride on royal steeds, wear two swords, be puissant in
battle, and trample on the Mughals. As I crush these onions you
have brought to me, so shall your son crush the heads of his enemies,
and be at once a great warrior and exalted Guru. His shall not
be the humble seat of a village Guru, but a gorgeous imperial
throne." As usual Bhai Buddha placed before the Guru a seli
(a woolen cord worn as a necklace or twisted round the head by
the former Gurus) and a turban, as appurtenances of his calling.
The Guru ordered the seli to be placed in the treasury and reminding
him about his prophecy said to Bhai Buddha,"My endeavors
shall be to fulfil thy prophecy. My seli shall be a swordbelt,
and I shall wear my turban with a royal aigrette. Give me a sword
to wear instead of seli." The sword was brought but Bhai
Buddha placed it on the wrong side of Guru Har Gobind. The Guru
said,"Bring another one, I shall wear two swords." He
wore two swords which were emblems of Spiritual and Temporal authority-
Piri and Miri- the combination of 'Bhakti and Shakti'.
The martyrdom of Guru Arjan was an unparallel
act in the history of mankind. The Guru had all the superpowers.
He could have averted the situation in any way he liked, but he
went through all that torture to show to the world how in all
thick and thin one should cheerfully submit to the sweet Will
of God. As a matter of fact, the contents of the Adi Granth were
not meant for the Yogis, Sidhas and Sanyasis or the Muslim Suffis
only, who sit in seclusion in the caves of the Himalayas and worship
the Almighty by denouncing the world. Instead the teachings of
the Adi Granth were meant for the family men. Leading the family
life, the Gurus gave practical examples as how to live according
to Guru's Word.
The cruel and torturous execution of Guru Arjan
aroused a very strong wave of angry feelings among the masses.
The enlightened, but not passive, sufferings of the Guru instilled
a new spirit and life into the people and they resolved to exert
and sacrifice themselves for the sake of righteousness. For centuries,
countless Hindu men, women and children had fallen under the Muslim
sword and this did not soften the stone hearts of their oppressors;
but rather they had become more cruel and brutal. Sometimes it
might be possible to reform the evil doer by opposing untruth
and injustice through non-violent methods. The silent resistance
and suffering for righteous cause might sometimes enable the tyrant
to see his evil actions and he might be improved. History stands
witness that no amount of non- violence can succeed against a
tyrant who is hardened and steeped in criminal oppressive ways
and who pays no heed to basic values of moral and civilized conduct.
Against such men, non-violence is only another name of disgraceful
cowardice in their dictionary. Such power drunk men must be faced
bravely with a stick bigger than theirs. After the inauguration,
some Masands represented to the Guru's mother that the preceding
five Gurus never handled arms; if Emperor Jahangir heard about
this, he would be angry and where would they (Sikhs) hide? She
showed courage to the Masands, however, she remonstrated with
the young Guru,"My son, we have no treasure, no state revenue,
no landed property and no army. If you walk in the way of your
father and grandfather, you will be happy." The Guru recited
the following verse:
"The Lord who is the Searcher of all hearts
Is my own Guardian."
(Bhairon Mohalla 5, p-1136)
and said,"Have no anxiety and everything
shall be according to the Will of God."
The Guru issued an order to the Masands that he
would be pleased with those who brought offerings of arms and
horses instead of money. He laid down the foundation of Akal Takhat
(Timeless Throne) in 1606 (the fifth day of light half of month
of Har, Sambat 1663) just in front of Hari Mandar, and it was
completed in 1609. Akal Takhat was built of solid bricks on a
raised platform of about ten feet in height and looked like a
throne. The Guru took his seat on it. He built Akal Takhat a few
yards in front of Hari Mandar with a view that a Sikh at Akal
Takhat should not forget that spiritual elevation was as essential
as his social obligations. As a matter of fact, the Guru wanted
his followers to be 'saint-soldiers', extremely cultured, highly
moral with spiritual height and be ever-ready to measure swords
with demonic forces. Bhai Buddha on seeing the Guru in military
harness, mildly remonstrated with him. Instead the Guru replied,"In
the Guru's house religion and worldly enjoyment shall be combined-
the caldron to supply the poor and the needy, and the scimitar
to smite the oppressors." (This should be noted by those
Sikhs who say that worldly and practical affairs should be kept
separate from religion in our Gurdwaras).
Several warriors and wrestlers came to the Guru
for service. He enrolled fifty-two heroes as his body-guard and
this formed the nucleus of his future army. About five hundred
young persons came from all over the Punjab to enlist in his service.
He made Bhai Bidhi Chand, Bhai Jetha, Bhai Piara, Bhai Langaha,
and Bhai Pirana, each captain of a troop of one hundred horse.
People began to wonder how the Guru could continue to maintain
such an army. The Guru quoted:
"God provideth every one with his daily food;
why, O man, art thou immersed planning;
He putteth their food even before the insects which He created
in rocks and stones."
(Gujri Mohalla 5, p-495)
Akal Takhat grew into an institution which symbolized
in itself the idea that the use of sword for the protection of
righteousness and for self-defence was called for. Here the Guru
sitting on his throne, would watch wrestling bouts and military
feats of his disciples performed in the open arena opposite to
the Akal Takhat. As all intricate cases and disputes were finally
decided here by the Guru, the Akal Takhat served the purpose of
a Supreme Court for the Sikhs. Besides throne, the Guru adopted
all other emblems of royalty- the umbrella, the swords, the crest
and the hawk, and thus the Sikhs called him a true king or 'Sacha
Padshah'- a king in all appearance but in deeds and in purity
as holy and great as previous Gurus. People looked towards Akal
Takhat for guidance in their secular affairs. This custom became
so significant that the decision once taken at Akal Takhat was
followed by the Sikhs enthusiastically and this was the reason
that they were always able to overcome every peril. The development
of this custom contributed a lot towards the consolidation of
the Sikh Movement.
Some writers charge that lure of politics and
glamour of arms led the Guru away from the true path of a religious
and spiritual leader. Their judgement is altogether unfounded.
There was no political motive of Guru Har Gobind and there is
nothing else to substantiate this allegation. Secondly his daily
routine was to go to Hari Mandar, listen Asa di Var and then give
religious instructions to his followers. He took keen interest
in propagation of his religion and appointed preachers in the
various regions of the country. He himself undertook tours to
various places in Punjab to propagate his faith. However the policy
of the Guru symbolized in itself the response to the challenge
of the time. Bhai Gurdas justifies the Guru's change in the policy
under peculiar circumstances:
"Just as one has to tie pail's neck while
taking out water, Just as to get 'Mani', snake is to be killed;
Just as to get Kasturi from deer's neck, deer is to be killed;
Just as to get oil, oil seeds are to be crushed;
To get kernel, pomegranate is to be broken;
Similarly to correct senseless people, sword has to be taken up."
(Bhai Gurdas, Var-34, pauri 13)
Guru Har Gobind appears to have been the first
Guru Who systematically turned his attention to the chase. His
daily routine at Amritsar was:- He rose before day-break, bathed,
dressed in full armor, and then went to Hari Mandar to worship.
There he heard Japji and Asa di Var being recited. He then preached
to his Sikhs. After the concluding prayer, breakfast was served
indiscriminately to the Guru's troops and followers as they sat
in rows for the purpose. He would rest for some time and then
would go to the chase, accompanied by an army of forest beaters,
hounds, tamed leopards and hawks of every variety. Late in the
afternoon he sat on his throne and give audience to his visitors
and followers. Minstrels sang the Guru's hymns and at twilight
the 'Sodar' was read. At the conclusion of the service musical
instruments of many sorts were played. At the end all adjourned
for their evening repast. A sacred concert was afterwards held
in which hymns were sung. Next followed the minstrel Abdulla's
martial songs to inspire the Sikhs with love of heroic deeds and
dispel feelings unworthy of warriors. The Sohila was then read
after which the Guru retired to his private apartment.
BANDI CHHOR- THE GREAT DELIVERER:
Chandu was fearful that the Guru might avenge
his father. His daughter was still unmarried and he wrote to the
Guru for her alliance which was again refused. He, therefore,
once again represented to Emperor Jahangir against the Guru. Upon
this Jahangir summoned the Guru to Delhi through Wazir Khan. After
careful consideration the Guru agreed to go to Delhi and assigned
the secular duties of the Hari Mandar to Bhai Buddha and its spiritual
duties to Bhai Gurdas. He instructed,"The Har Mandar is specially
devoted to God's service, wherefore it should ever be respected.
It should never be defiled with any impurity of the human body.
No gambling, wine-drinking, light behavior with women, or slander,
should be allowed therein. No one should steal, utter a falsehood,
smoke tobacco, or contrive litigation in its precincts. Sikhs,
holy men, guests, strangers, the poor and the friendless should
ever receive hospitality from Sikhs. My people should ever be
humble, repeat God's Name, promote their faith, meditate on Guru's
words, and keep all his commandments." The Guru then went
Through the good offices of Wazir Khan, the Emperor
received the Guru with great apparent respect. Seeing him very
young and already installed as Guru, the Emperor had a good deal
of spiritual discussion in order to test his knowledge of divinity.
The Emperor having heard that the Guru loved the
chase requested him to accompany him one day on a hunting excursion.
In the forest a tiger rushed towards the Emperor. Elephants and
horses took fright, bullets and arrows were discharged towards
the tiger but in vain. The Emperor was completely paralysed with
fear and called upon the Guru to save him who alighted from his
horse, and taking his sword and shield ran between the tiger and
the Emperor. As the tiger sprang, he dealt him a blow with his
sword and the tiger fell lifeless on the ground. The Emperor thanked
his God that he was saved by the Guru through his heroic endeavor.
It was time for the Emperor to visit Agra and
he invited the Guru to accompany him. He, after repeated invitations,
consented to go. When they both arrived in Agra, the Guru was
received with great rejoicing by the people. Seeing increasing
friendship between the Emperor and the Guru, Chandu said to himself,"The
Guru will take revenge on me whenever he finds an opportunity.
I shall only be safe if by some means I succeed in having broken
this friendship or having him imprisoned, and thus I should apply
all efforts to that end."
The Emperor fell ill and he sent for his astrologer
to check upon his stars and find the remedy. Chandu took advantage
of the situation and bribed the astrologer heavily to sever connection
between the Guru and the Emperor. The astrologer accordingly suggested
that a holy man of God should go to the Fort of Gwalior and pray
for the Emperor's recovery there. Chandu on the other hand advised
the Emperor that Guru Har Gobind was the holiest of men and thus
played double role. Jahangir requested the Guru to go to Gwalior,
the latter accepted it without hesitation as another mission awaited
There was joy in the Fort when it was known that
the Guru was coming. There were fifty-two Indian princes (Rajas)
imprisoned in the Gwalior Fort who were spending their days in
lamentation and misery. They believed that they would be released
by the Guru's intercession. Hari Das, the governor of the Fort,
was happy too, since he had been longing to have 'darshan' (holy
sight). He went forth to receive the Guru and prostrated before
the Master. The Guru met the princes, comforted them and gave
them peace, making them happy even in adversity.
Chandu wrote couple of letters to the governor
of the Fort, urging him to poison the Guru and put an end to him.
Hari Das, however, put all letters before the Guru as he received
them; since he had become his devotee. The Guru recited the following
Sabad at that time:
"The slanderer shall crumble down
Like a wall of Kallar; hear, ye brethren, thus shall be known.
The slanderer is glad when he seeth a fault; on seeing anything
good he is filled with grief.
He meditateth evil all day long, but it befalleth not; the evil-minded
man dieth meditating evil.
The slanderer forgetteth God, and when death approacheth,
quarrelleth with God's saint.
The Lord Himself preserveth Nanak, what can wretched man do?"
(Bilawal Mohalla 5, p-823)
Jahangir recovered from illness. The Guru was
still in the Gwalior Fort. When the Emperor heard Wazir Khan's
pleading on behalf of the Guru (some say, also the pleading of
Mian Mir), he ordered that the Guru should be presented to him.
On hearing this the imprisoned Rajas were very much distressed.
The Master would not leave the Fort unless all the Rajas were
also released. The Emperor conceded to his wish and released all
the fifty-two princes. From this the Guru is still remembered
in Gwalior as Bandi Chhor- the Great Deliverer, the holy man who
freed the prisoners. There still stands a shrine 'Bandi Chhor'
in the historic Fort of Gwalior.
Mian Mir brought home to the Emperor the innocence
of Guru Arjan and how under his cruel orders, the great divine
Master had been tortured to death. The Emperor, however, washed
his hands clean of this sin and held Chandu entirely responsible
for this crime, who was then arrested by the Emperor's order and
taken to Lahore to be executed there. He was paraded through the
streets of Lahore, people threw filth on him, and cursed him.
A grain-parcher struck him on the head with an iron ladle and
Chandu died. When the Emperor heard Chandu's death, he remarked
that he richly deserved this fate. The Guru, however, prayed that
as Chandu had suffered torment for his sins in this life, God
would pardon him hereafter.
Sujan, a Masand from Kabul who had amassed great
wealth from tithes and offerings, heard that Guru Har Gobind had
great love for the horses. He looked far and near and ultimately
found a horse of rare beauty and speed which he purchased for
a lakh of rupees to make an offering to the Guru. When Sujan was
crossing the river Indus, the eye of an officer fell on the horse
which was of a rare strain and beauty and he ultimately took away
the horse saying that the animal should go to the Emperor. Sujan
told the Guru how he was robbed of the horse. The Guru recommended
patience and predicted that nobody but himself (Guru) would ride
When the Emperor desired to mount, the horse shook
its head which was considered a bad omen. After sometimes the
horse fell ill and would neither eat nor drink. All known medicines
were tried but in vain. When the horse was on the verge of death,
the head Qazi (Rustam Khan) suggested that if the holy Quran was
read for him, he might recover. Upon this the horse was presented
to the Qazi.
When the Qazi was leading the horse home, the
animal neighed as it passed through the Guru's tent (Guru was
at Lahore at that time). Through negotiations with the Qazi, the
horse was purchased for ten thousand rupees. The Guru patted on
the neck of the horse and it started recovering its strength.
The Qazi had a beautiful daughter, Kaulan who
was a disciple of Mian Mir. From her childhood she had occupied
her mind praising God's Name and remembering Him in the company
of the saints. Through the holy company of Mian Mir, she had heard
praises of Guru Har Gobind and she praised him in the midst of
her own family. This incensed her father very much who addressed
her,"O Infidel, you praise an infidel (Guru) and obey not
the law of Mohammad, according to which it is forbidden, under
penalty of death, to praise an infidel." Kaulan replied,"Father
dear, the law of Mohammad does not apply to holy men. Saints are
God's servants." On hearing this from her daughter, the Qazi
burnt with bigotry and indignation. After consulting his brother
Qazis, he issued an order for the execution of his daughter, Kaulan
for her sin of transgressing the Mohammad law.
Kaulan's mother informed her daughter and Mian
Mir about the order of the Qazi. Mian Mir recommended to Kaulan,"There
appears no means of saving you here. It is better if you go to
Amritsar and seek protection of Guru Har Gobind. None else but
he can save your life." Kaulan heeded Mian Mir's advice and
went to Amritsar.
Kaulan began her life at Amritsar under the protection
of the Guru. She was given a separate building to reside. Kaulan
found consolation in repeating following Sabad:
"O mother, I awake by association with the
On seeing the love of the Beloved, I repeat His Name which is
Thirsting for a sight of Him, I long and look for Him;
I have forgotten my desire for other things.
I have found Guru, the giver of composure and peace;
On beholding him, my mind is wrapped up in God.
On seeing God pleasure hath arisen in my heart; Nanak dear to
me is His ambrosial Word."
(Kedara Mohalla 5, p-1119)
Quite a bit of time passed in this manner until
one day she took all her jewels and placed them before the Guru
and said,"O friend of the poor, please apply the price of
these jewels to some religious object by which my name may be
remembered in the world for sometime." The Guru got a tank
excavated in her name with that money in 1621. The tank is still
famous as Kaulsar in the city of Amritsar. Guru Har Gobind also
constructed another tank called Babeksar commemorating the deliverance
of his spiritual address on that spot to his followers. There
are now five sacred tanks in Amritsar in the vicinity of Golden
Temple: Santokhsar, Amritsar, Ramsar, Kaulsar, and Babeksar.
MUGHAL FORCES AND THE GURU:
Emperor Jahangir had died in Kashmir and his son
Shah Jahan became the Emperor of India.
When Prithia's son, Meharban heard Chandu's death,
he was greatly distressed. Meharban said to himself,"Sulhi
Khan died when he set himself against the Guru. My father died
as he was against the Guru. Now Chandu has died. What magic the
Guru possesseth that no one may withstand him." Meharban
exchanged turban with Karam Chand, Chandu's son, in token of life-long
friendship, and then discussed ways with him how to bring about
the Guru's ruin. They started poisoning Shah Jahan's mind against
him. Guru Har Gobind sent his revered Sikhs to Meharban to dissuade
him from his hostile and evil designs. He also went himself to
Meharban to strike a conciliatory note but in vain.
Shah Jahan pursued a different religious policy.
He served to orthodoxy, and religious fanaticism was at a considerable
height during his reign. He took keen interest in the welfare
of new converts to Islam. If any Muslim gave up his religion,
he was severely dealt with. Some temples under construction in
Punjab were demolished and mosques were raised in their places.
His mind was poisoned against the Guru by his enemies and soon
the ties of cordial relations as they had been since 1611, were
snapped and a period of open hostility started towards the Sikhs.
On his way to Pilibhit, the Guru visited Kartarpur
where he met some Pathans of village, Wadamir, equipped with swords
and shields who offered their services to him. With them was a
tall and powerful youth, Painde Khan. His parents were dead and
he was living with his uncle. The Guru enlisted Painde Khan on
his personal staff and continually pampered him to increase his
strength. He could, without the aid of a rope or bridle, arrest
a horse running at full speed. No wrestler would engage with him.
The Guru practised all martial exercises and collected arms of
every description. He hunted and witnessed exhibitions of strength
by Painde Khan and others. He presented to Painde Khan the offering
made by the Sikhs. This caused great heart-burning and worry to
others. A deputation of Sikhs went to Bhai Gurdas who in turn
sent them to Bhai Buddha. Bhai Buddha represented to the Guru,"Thou
art like the Ganges, like the sun and like the fire. The river
Ganges swallows corpses and bones of the countless dead, and yet
remains pure; the sun draws noxious vapors towards it, and yet
remains pure; fire burns the dead, yet remains pure. Thou art
like all three. The Sikhs seeing your love and enthusiasm for
sport and military exercises, fear for you. Therefore, please
abandon them." The Guru laughed and replied,"I have
done nothing improper. I am only fulfilling your prophecy and
elevating the conditions of my Sikhs."
Preparations were made for the marriage of the
Guru's daughter, Bibi Viro, and sweets were prepared and stored
in a room. A company of Sikhs came from the west to behold the
Guru and present their offerings. They were weary and hungry and
reached late at night when kitchen was closed. The Guru desired
that the sweets stored for the marriage should be served to his
visitors. The key of the room was with Guru's wife, Mata Damodri
who refused to give the sweets to any one till the bridegroom's
party had partaken of them. The Guru again asked but his wife
adhered to her determination. Upon this the Guru predicted,"My
Sikhs are dearer to me than life. Were they the first to taste
the sweets, all obstacles to the marriage would be removed, but
now the Mohammadans shall come and possess themselves of the sweets
and marriage be interrupted." This prophecy became true.
In the meantime a Sikh brought sweets which were served to the
Emperor Shah Jahan went hunting from Lahore towards
Amritsar. The Guru also went in the same direction. A clash took
place between the Sikhs and the royal soldiers over the issue
of a royal hawk. One of the royal hawks who was flying after a
victim, strayed away and fell in the hands of the Sikhs. The royal
soldiers came to recover the hawk but because of their arrogance
and abusive language, the Sikhs refused to hand over the hawk
and this started the trouble. The royal soldiers were driven away
with a slaughter. They hastened back and reported to the Emperor
about the seizer of the hawk and the violence of the Sikhs. The
enemies of the Guru found a good opportunity to revive the charges
against him and to remind the Emperor of Guru's alleged misdeeds.
The Emperor sent Mukhlis Khan, one of his trusted
generals with seven thousand soldiers to punish the Sikhs. The
Sikhs of Lahore hearing of the military expedition against the
Guru, sent immediately a messenger to Amritsar to apprise the
Guru of the attack. There were great rejoicing going on at the
palace of the Guru on account of his daughter's marriage. The
Guru's family was immediately removed to a house near Ramsar.
Early next day it was decided to send the family to Goindwal.
It so happened that the coming day was fixed for Viro's marriage.
Thus the Guru ordered that his family and all the non-combatants
of the city should halt at Jhabal, a town about seven miles south-west
of Amritsar and the marriage should be celebrated there before
going to Goindwal. Two Sikhs were sent to stop the bridegroom's
procession, lest it should fall in the hands of the enemy.
There was a small fortress, Lohgarh, outside the
city. It was a kind of raised platform (serving as a tower) where
the Guru used to hold his court in the afternoon and it was surrounded
by high walls. Twenty-five Sikhs were posted there in an anticipation
of the attack. The Guru went to the temple and prayed for the
victory. He repeated the following verse on the occasion:
"Wicked men and enemies are all destroyed
by Thee, O Lord, and Thy glory is manifested.
Thou didst immediately destroy those who annoyed Thy saints."
(Dhanasri Mohalla 5, p-681)
The Sikh detachment at Lohgarh though courageous
were too few to stop the Mughal army. After destroying hundreds
of the enemy soldiers, they fell martyrs to the Guru's cause.
The enemy soldiers proceeded to the Guru's palace in search of
him but became furious finding the palace empty. They searched
the house and took care of the sweets. With the day break, began
the conflict, the clashing of swords and the hissing of the bullets.
Brave men fell and died, blood flowed in profusion, corpses were
piled over one another, heads, bodies, arms, and legs were separated
and horses without riders careered around the city.
Bhai Bhanu was the commander-in-chief of the Guru's
army and Shams Khan was one of the chiefs of the imperial army.
Shams Khan's horse was killed. Bhai Bhanu then dismounted, and
he and Shams Khan engaged in a single combat. Bhai Bhanu told
Shams Khan,"I will not allow you to escape now." Shams
Khan replied,"Defend yourself, I am going to strike."
Bhai Bhanu received the sword on his shield, and putting forward
all his force, beheaded Shams Khan with one blow. The Mohammadans
seeing their commander slain, rushed to Bhai Bhanu and surrounded
him from all sides. He cut down the enemy as if they were radishes.
At last he was struck by two bullets which passed through his
body and the brave commander of the Guru's army left for his heavenly
Bhai Bidhi Chand, Painde Khan and Bhai Jati Mal
had been committing great havoc among the Mohammadan army. They,
lifting their lances, made their enemies' horses riderless. The
Guru himself fought so bravely that no one when struck by him,
asked for water again. Painde Khan was equally successful in the
combat. He made Didar Ali, the last survivor of Mukhlis Khan's
personal staff, bite the earth.
Mukhlis Khan, now left alone, thought nothing
remained for him but to engage the Guru himself. He said,"Let
you and me now decide the fight by single combat, and none else
approach." In order to please him, the Guru warned his own
men to stand aside. He then discharged an arrow which killed Mukhlis
Khan's horse. The Guru dismounted and said,"Show thy skill
and strike the first blow." Mukhlis Khan aimed a blow which
the Guru avoided by a swift movement. The next blow fell on the
Guru's shield. The Guru then warned,"You have made two strokes
which I have parried. Now it is my turn." The Guru then lifting
his powerful arm dealt Mukhlis Khan such a blow that his head
was cut off in two.
Painde Khan, Bhai Bidhi Chand and Bhai Jati Mal
killed the enemy soldiers who held the ground but the majority
of them fled without looking behind. After that the Guru's victory
was complete and the drums of victory were joyously sounded. This
battle was fought in 1628 (some date it as 1634). The battle was
extended to a distance of about four miles to the south of Amritsar
and a dharmsal called the Sangrana was erected to commemorate
the Guru's victory. A fair is held every year on this spot.
After completing the last rites of his brave soldiers,
the Guru went to Jhabal and performed the marriage ceremony of
FOUNDATION OF SRI HAR GOBINDPUR CITY AND SECOND BATTLE:
On hearing the death of Mukhlis Khan and the defeat
of his army, Shah Jahan called a council of his chiefs at which
it was decided that the Guru should be captured or killed lest
he should seize the reins of the empire. Wazir Khan, a follower
of the Guru, defended him and said,"Sir, the Guru is not
a rebel and has no designs on thine empire. Had he ever got such
a design, he would have followed his victory, seized some fortress,
taken some territory or plundered some of thy treasuries. Is it
not a miracle that with only seven hundred men he destroyed the
army of seven thousand?" These and many such arguments of
Wazir Khan were supported by the friends of the Guru at the court.
The Emperor was convinced and agreed to forget the past. After
the conflict the Guru went to Kartarpur. Painde Khan soon became
a concern to the Guru as he began to boast,"It is I who conquered
the countless hosts opposed to the Guru at Amritsar. With my arrow
I skewered them like trussed fowl. Had I not been there, no one
would have had the courage to oppose them. The Sikhs would have
all fled." The Guru heard this. Painde Khan who used to wait
on him whole day and go to his quarters just to sleep, was ordered
by the Guru to remain at his home and visit him only occasionally.
This was his reprimand for Painde Khan's boasting. It was a rainy
season and the Guru after crossing the river Beas, went to the
right side of the bank which was lofty. He observed that the land
dwellings were only in one direction and the rest of the land
was unoccupied. He considered it a good site to found a city.
The people received him with open arms but the landlord and Chaudhry,
Bhagwan Das Gherar were not in favor of him. Gherar started hostilities
against him and used abusive language. Upon this a clash broke
out in which Gherar was killed.
Having secured the goodwill of the people, the
Guru made preparations for the city. He cut the first sod himself
and summoned masons and laborers from the neighboring villages.
The city subsequently was called Sri Har Gobindpur in his honor.
Rattan Chand, son of the Gherar, vowed to avenge
the death of his father. He went to Karam Chand, Chandu's son,
and urged him to join him against the common oppressor (Guru).
They both then went to Abdulla Khan, the Subedar of Jullundhur.
Rattan Chand poured his grievances and represented how pleased
the Emperor would be if the Guru were put into his hands and what
high promotion the Subedar would receive.
The Subedar and his advisors were convinced by
Rattan Chand's arguments and an immediate expedition was planned
and organized against the Guru. When the Guru heard about the
expedition, he simply said," What pleaseth God is best."
The Subedar had an army of ten thousand men. He disposed his forces
into eight divisions, five for his generals, two for his sons
and one for himself. The Guru gave his command to Bhai Jattu,
Bhai Bidhi Chand, Bhai Jati Mal, Bhai Mathura, Bhai Jaganath,
Bhai Nano and others.
Under the favoring glance of the Guru, the Sikhs
who had formerly been weak as hares now became strong as lions.
No matter what their birth or previous calling, they all proved
themselves as gallant heroes in the field. After all the generals
of Abdulla fell in the battle field, he resolved to conquer or
die. Karam Chand, Rattan Chand and Abdulla Khan all three came
on the Guru, who then asked Karam Chand and Rattan Chand,"
What think you on? Now avenge your fathers. Retreat not like cowards.
Be brave and stand before me; otherwise go where your fathers
have gone." The Guru struck Karam Chand with his shield and
made him stagger and fall. Rattan Chand ran to his aid but was
shot. Abdulla struck few blows which the Guru received on his
shield. Then gathering his strength he drew his falchion on the
Subedar, and severed his head from his body. By this time Karam
Chand recovered his consciousness and rushed towards the Guru.
There ensued a sword- play between the two until the sword of
the latter was broken. The Guru as a holy man desiring to take
no mean advantage of his adversary, put his own sword into his
scabbard, and engaged with him in a wrestling combat. At last
the Guru, seizing Karam Chand by both arms, swung him around and
dashed his head to the ground. The Subedar and all his generals
were slain and his army had fled, the battle was ended and victory
kissed the feet of the Guru.
Two Masands, Bakhat Mal and Tara Chand had been
deputed to Kabul to collect funds for the Guru. They returned
with a company of Sikhs who brought the offering and two horses
of supreme beauty and speed, were Dil Bagh and Gul Bagh. Both
of the horses were seized by the Emperor's officials who presented
them to him. The Sikhs were much dismayed to see that they were
robbed of the horses which they had bought for the Guru.
Bhai Bidhi Chand before entering the services
of Guru Arjan, had been a very famous highwayman and robber and
several of his exploits in that capacity were recorded. Afterwards
he became Guru's follower. The Sikhs thought that as there were
no horses like Dil Bagh and Gul Bagh in the world, so there was
no one like Bidhi Chand who could secure possession of the horses.
Ultimately Bidhi Chand decided to do the job. He got ready, uttered
a prayer and went to Lahore to recover the horses. There lived
a Sikh carpenter, Jiwan in Lahore and he stayed with him.
Bidhi Chand started the work of a kasiara (grass-cutter).
He cut beautiful soft grass, made a bundle and took it to the
market. The grass was beautiful and Bidhi Chand was demanding
very high price for that. Ultimately he reached Sondha Khan, the
royal stable- keeper who on seeing the grass remarked that he
had never seen such grass before. It was fit for Dil Bagh and
Gul Bagh, and he ordered his men to adjust the price and buy it
for the horses. Sondha Khan took Bidhi Chand with grass on his
head to where the horses were tethered. The horses ate to their
heart's content as if they had been fasting for a whole day. He
continued this practice for several days before he was appointed
grass-cutter for the Emperor's famous steeds for one rupee a day.
He worked so hard and showed so much civility and sweetness in
his words that Sondha Khan entrusted him with bridling and unbridling
of the horses. The Emperor once came to see the horses and was
very much pleased to observe their excellent condition and he
admired Bidhi Chand for that.
One day one of his fellow-servants told him that
he was drawing more money than any one of them but he never celebrated.
Bidhi Chand agreed to their demand. He went to the market and
bought the most potent liquor. A dinner was arranged. He served
so much and so strong a liquor to his friends that they were disposed
of for the night and Bidhi Chand was free for his action. He mounted
on Dil Bagh and applying the whip he faced him towards the fort-wall
over which he wanted the horse to leap. The horse which was never
touched before, on receiving a cut with whip roused at unusual
summons, gathered his strength and cleared without hesitation
the high battlement with a bound, and plunged with his rider into
the river (river was flowing by the side of the stable). Bidhi
Chand, well skilled in horsemanship, steadied the horse in the
water and reached safely to shore. He reached Bhai Rupa, a village
where the Guru was staying.
The Sikhs noticed that Dil Bagh did not eat his
corn well and he was missing his mate Gul Bagh. So Bidhi Chand
set out to recover Gul Bagh too. When he reached Lahore, he heard
that a reward was posted for the finder of Dil Bagh. Bidhi Chand
changed his appearance and dress, reaching at the gate of the
fort he claimed,"I am an experienced tracker and astrologer,
and can trace anything that has been lost." Bidhi Chand under
the pseudo name of Ganak, when presented before the Emperor, convinced
him that he had the skill to interpret omens, discover tracks
and read the stars and planets. The Emperor promised him lakhs
of rupees if he pointed out where the stolen horse was. Bidhi
Chand replied to the Emperor,"I know where the horse is,
but I want to have a look at the place whence he was stolen, and
then I will give all the information."
Upon this the Emperor along with his attendants
took him to the stable. Some tried to dissuade the Emperor from
trusting the stranger but the advice was disregarded.
Upon Bidhi Chand's advice all the horses were
saddled in the stable, perfect solitude and tranquility was ordered
and an embargo was put on the ingress and egress of the inhabitants
of the fort. All this was done to make possible for Bidhi Chand
to sit in perfect tranquility and make calculation. Macauliffe
records Bhai Bidhi Chand's address to the Emperor,"Hear everything,
consider not the thief a person to be forgotten. Thy father, by
the power of his army, formerly took possession of an excellent
horse intended for the holy and worshipful Guru Har Gobind, whose
fame is like that of the sun, and thou hast now imitation of thy
unjust father seized these steeds specially intended by the pious
Sikhs for their beloved Guru. I have made reprisal and taken the
first horse by my ingenuity. My name is Bidhi Chand; I am the
Guru's servant. It was I who took home Dil Bagh, the horse thou
art in search of. On account of separation from his mate, he wept
copiously on his arrival, and we could only induce him to eat
and drink with difficulty. Wherefore, in the guise of a tracker
and with a love for dumb animals, I have come to take his companion
to join him. I am the thief, the true King is my Master. Thou
hast now given me Gul Bagh ready saddled. I have thoroughly gauged
the wisdom of thy court. I will tell where the horse is, and in
doing so remove all blame from myself. The Guru hath pitched his
tent in the new village of Bhai Rupa. Know that Dil Bagh is standing
there. Gul Bagh shall now go to join him."
Upon this Bidhi Chand undid the ropes that tethered
the horse to the peg and galloped it to Bhai Rupa where the Guru
had encamped. Dil Bagh's name was changed to Jan Bhai (as dear
as life) and Gul Bagh was called Suhela (companion). At this the
Emperor got inflamed and he asked,"Is there any brave man
who will undertake an expedition against the Guru?" Up rose
Lala Beg, a high officer of the imperial army and said that he
would lead the expedition against the Guru, and produce the stolen
horses before the Emperor in a few days. Lala Beg's brother Qamar
Beg with his two sons, Qasim Beg and Shams Beg, and his nephew
Kabuli Beg also volunteered. Lala Beg and his companions were
put in command of an army of thirty-five thousand men with horses.
The imperial army marched to Bhai Rupa and not finding the Guru
there proceeded to his new headquarters, Lehra which was a few
miles away from Bhai Rupa. The Guru chose this site because it
was not connected with any city to provide supplies and other
requirements of war to the enemy and it had one well of drinking
water which was firmly guarded by the Guru's army.
The Guru's army was commanded by Bhai Bidhi Chand,
Bhai Jetha, Bhai Jati Mal, and Bhai Rai Jodh and there were about
four thousand soldiers.
Rai Jodh with a thousand men went to oppose Qamar
Beg. Showers of bullets thinned the ranks of the imperial army.
They used their swords and guns. The Guru's troops caused great
havoc upon the enemy. Rai Jodh finding an opportunity pierced
Qamar Beg with his lance who fell and soon after died. After seeing
his chiefs slain and his army disheartened, Lala Beg himself hurried
to oppose Bhai Jati Mal, and discharged an arrow which struck
Jati Mal on the breast and made him fall fainting to the ground.
The Guru seeing Jati Mal fall, entered the battle field and invited
Lala Beg to measure his strength with his. He shot Lala Beg's
horse which fell with its rider. The Guru, on seeing the chief
on the ground, dismounted so as not to take an unfair advantage
of his adversary. Lala Beg assumed the offensive and aimed several
blows of his sword at the Guru, who avoided them all. The Guru
then putting forward his strength, struck the chief a blow which
completely severed his head from his body. Kabuli Beg, the chief's
nephew was the only one of imperial commanders remained in the
field. On seeing Lala Beg fall down, Kabuli Beg jumped on the
Guru. He slashed again and again at the Guru but every blow was
evaded. The Guru then warned him,"It is now my turn, be on
thy guard." He then dealt him with such a blow that his head
was cut off. This ended the battle. The surviving imperial army
soldiers fled for their lives. Twelve hundred soldiers of the
Guru's army were slain or wounded.
The battle which had begun at midnight, lasted
for eighteen hours on the 16th of Maghar, Sambat 1688 or 1631
A.D. (some date this battle in 1634). The Guru admired the bravery
shown by Bhai Bidhi Chand, Bhai Jati Mal and Bhai Rai Jodh. In
order to commemorate the victory, a tank called Guru Sar was built
on the spot.
FOURTH AND LAST BATTLE:
The Guru went for a repose at Kangar and soon
returned to Kartarpur. After a while a war broke between the Sikhs
and the Mughals. This time the cause was Painde Khan. He went
to Subedar of Jullundhur, Qutab Khan, and then both of them went
to the Emperor and induced him to despatch a strong force against
the Guru. Kale Khan, the brother of Mukhlis Khan, was given a
command of fifty thousand men. Qutab Khan, Painde Khan, Anwar
Khan and Asman Khan were commissioned to fight under Kale Khan.
Bhai Bidhi Chand, Bhai Jati Mal, Bhai Lakhu, and
Bhai Rai Jodh ranged their troops on the four sides of Kartarpur.
The imperial army chiefs advanced against them. The Pathans were,
however, powerless against the brave Sikhs who were fighting for
their religion and their Guru. Bidhi Chand engaged with Kale Khan,
and Baba Gurditta, Guru's eldest son, with Asman Khan. Even Tegh
Bahadur (later on the ninth Guru) who was only fourteen years
old, had shown feats of valor in the field. Painde Khan with drawn
sword confronted the Guru and used profane words for the Master.
In the words of Mohsan Fani, a Muslim historian of that time,
the Guru addressed him,"Painde Khan, why use such words when
the sword is in your hand. Brave as you are my boy, come I give
you full leave to strike first. I have no grudge against you.
But you are full of wrath. You can wreak your rage by striking
the first blow."
Painde Khan aimed a heavy blow at the Guru but
it was parried off. He was allowed again to strike but in vain.
Infuriated with his double failure, he gave a third blow but could
not hit. The Master then urged him,"Come, my boy, I will
teach you how to strike. Not your way but this..." Saying
this he gave him such strong blow that Painde Khan fell on the
ground mortally wounded. From this blow he seemed to have regained
his old sense of discipleship. The Guru told him,"Thou art
a Musalman. Now is the time to repeat your kalma (creed)."
Painde Khan replied,"O Master, your sword is my kalma and
my source of salvation." The Guru on seeing him dying was
filled with pity, and by putting his shield over his face so as
to shade it from the sun, he said,"Painde Khan, I cherished
you, I reared you, and I made you a hero. Though men spoke ill
of you, I forgot all your failings, and evil never entered my
mind against you; but the evil destiny misled you so much that
you brought an army against me. It is your own acts of ingratitude
and insolence that have led to your death at my hands. Though
you have been ungrateful and untrue to your salt, I pray the Almighty
to grant you a dwelling in heaven."
After all his chiefs were slain, Kale Khan confronted
the Guru. He discharged an arrow which whizzed past him. A second
arrow grazed the Guru's forehead, and drops of blood bespattered
his face. He remarked,"Kale Khan, I have seen your science.
Now see mine." At this he discharged an arrow which killed
Kale Khan's horse. The Guru thought it a point of honor also to
dismount and offer his adversary a choice of arms. Sparks of fire
issued from clash of sword to sword. He parried all his strokes
and commented,"Not thus, this is the way to fence."
He then dealt Kale Khan a blow with his two-edged scimitar which
severed his head from his body. On this the imperial soldiers
fled for their lives. Bidhi Chand and Jati Mal shouted slogans
It is said that several thousand Mohammadans were
killed while only seven hundred brave Sikhs lost their lives in
this battle. It ended on the 24th day of Har, Sambat 1691 (1634
Guru Har Gobind fought and won four battles. Since
his purpose had always been defensive, he did not acquire even
an inch of territory as a result of these victories. However this
effected a great change in the character of the Sikhs who, side
by side of their rosaries, girded up their loins and buckled on
their swords in defence of their faith. A new spirit of heroism
was risen in the land to resist the mighty and unjust power of
the Mughal government who had embarked upon the policy of religious
discrimination against non-Muslim subject. The Master was looked
upon by the Sikhs not only a divine messenger but as an accomplished
swordsman, a hero and thorough master of the war.
Guru Har Gobind was the first, after Guru Nanak,
who went outside the Punjab to spread Sikh religion. He travelled
from place to place and went as far as Kashmir in the north and
Nanakmata, Pilibhit in the east.
A Sikh, Almast (means enthusiast) who had been
preaching Sikh religion at Nanak Mata near Pilibhit, had been
expelled from his shrine by the Jogis who had also burnt the sacred
pipal tree under which Guru Nanak had held debate with the followers
of Gorakh Nath. Night and day Almast read the compositions of
the Gurus. He used to pray,"O searcher of hearts, true Guru,
render us assistance." Enduring all hardships, Almast waited
until the Guru came to repair and take possession of Guru Nanak's
Ramo, the eldest sister of Guru's wife- Damodri,
was married to Sain Das who lived in Daroli in the present district
of Ferozepur. Sain Das was ever praying that Guru Har Gobind would
visit his village. He built a mansion to receive him and vowed
not to allow any one to live in it until the Guru had hallowed
it by his presence. Sain Das prepared a beautiful bed, and over
the pillow he put up a canopy. Every morning he used to lay flowers
in the room and pray that the Guru would come to bless the place.
Ramo used to ask Das to go and bring the Guru but he would say,"The
Guru is omniscient and will come of his own accord."
On account of the troubles of Almast and the devotion
of Sain Das, the Guru decided to visit Nanakmata and Daroli and
taking with him a troop of his armed retainers. He went to Kartarpur
and stayed there for some days. After that when he arrived in
Nanak- Mata, the Jogis, seeing his retinue, thought that some
Raja had come. Almast came forth and uttered thanksgiving that
his spiritual master had arrived. The Guru constructed a platform
and sitting on it recited the Sodar. He sprinkled saffron on the
pipal tree which came back to its full bloom.
The Jogis came in a body and represented,"
Thou art a family man; we are well-known holy ascetics. Bearing
the name of Gorakhnath, this place has been ours. Therefore leave
it, and go and abide wherever it pleases you." The Guru replied,"Whom
do you call a holy ascetic? I apply this name only to him who
has renounced pride and who has the love of God in his heart.
It is he, and not a man who wears an ascetic's garb, who will
The Jogis, in order to terrify him, made a show
of their supernatural powers, but could produce no effect on the
Guru, and thus retreated. Since that date the place is called
Nanakmata, and remained in the possession of Udasi Sikhs. He remained
there for some time and occupied himself with preaching to his
Sikhs, and set up a Sikh service organization under the guidance
On his return journey he proceeded to Daroli where
his mother and wives were waiting for him. Sain Das and his wife
Ramo begged for his blessings. He replied,"God at all times
assist those whose hearts are pure. With a pure mind meditate
on His Name, and accept His Will, then you shall be happy."
The moon was full in the month of Kartik, Sambat
1670 (1613 A.D.) Mata Damodri gave birth to a son who was afterwards
named Gurditta, and who bore a remarkable likeness to Guru Nanak.
After that he returned to Amritsar.
Sewa Das, a Brahman who was residing at Srinagar
in Kashmir, had been a converted Sikh. His mother, Bhagbhari made
a beautiful robe to give to the Guru when he would visit her.
She continued praying and waited for him who answered her prayer
by deciding to proceed to Kashmir to see her.
On his way to Kashmir he reached Chaparnala near
Sialkot, where he met a Brahman and asked him where could he find
water to drink and bathe in? The Brahman carelessly replied that
the soil was stony and therefore, the water was very scant. Upon
this the Guru drove a spear into the ground and it is said that
a spring of pure water issued forth. The Sikhs constructed a tank
at the spring and it was called Gurusar. The Brahman felt ashamed
and asked for pardon for not having recognized the Master's greatness.
The Guru replied,"The sins of those who repent shall be pardoned."
He continued his journey into the mountains of
Kashmir. There he met Kattu Shah, a faithful Sikh who had visited
him at Amritsar. He spent a night in his house and then proceeded
to Srinagar, where Sewa Das was meditating and waiting for him.
His mother said that she worshipped the very ground on which the
Guru would tread. He was received with great respect and enthusiasm
and he asked Sewa Das's mother to bring the dress she had made
for him. He put it on and blessed her. Overwhelmed with devotion
for the Guru, she recited the following Sabad:
"Who but Thee, my Beloved, could do such
Cherisher of the poor, Lord of the world, Thou hast put over my
head the umbrella of spiritual sovereignty."
(Rag Bani Maru Ravdas, p-1106)
After this she and her son both drank some of
the water in which the Guru had washed his feet, and the remainder
she sprinkled over her house.
Crowds of Kashmiris both from Srinagar and the
surrounding villages paid homage and many embraced Sikhism. A
very interesting story- a company of Sikhs came to behold the
Guru from a distant village with an offering of honey. On the
way they met Kattu Shah who requested them to let him have some
of the honey, but they refused saying that they could not offer
him Kattu Shah's leavings. When the Sikhs reached the Guru, the
honey was found rotten and full of worms. The Guru remarked,"This
is the result of not having given to my Sikh in whom is the spirit
of the Guru." He ordered them to return and satisfy Kattu
Shah. It is said that the honey became fresh and sweet when they
returned to Kattu Shah. 'Hungry mouth is Guru's treasure.'
He returned to Punjab through Bara Mula. The next
day he visited the place where Rikhi Kashyap had dwelt, and where
Vishnu was said to have incarnation of a swarf. Then he proceeded
to Gujrat in the Punjab where he met Shah Daula, a saint of that
city. Shah Daula was astonished to see the Guru with swords hanging
on his both sides, aigrette attached to his turban and a hawk
perched on his wrist. Shah Daula asked him,"How can you be
a religious man when you have wife and children and possess worldly
wealth and have arms?" The Guru retorted,"A wife is
man's conscience, his children perpetuate his memory, wealth enables
him to live, arms are needed to extirpate the tyrants."
After that he proceeded to Wazirabad and Hafizabad,
both in the district of Gujranwala (now in Pakistan). Then he
went to a village called Mutto Bhai and preached the principles
of his religion. He spent some time there. The Guru then reached
Mandiali, a place about five miles from Lahore. Here Dwarka, a
devout Sikh, married his daughter, Bibi Marwahi to him.
While still at Mandiali the Guru was informed
by his Sikh Langha of the sustained efforts of some of imperial
officers and the Qazis to poison the Emperor's mind to destroy
the sacred buildings of the Sikhs. The Guru took only a casual
notice and proceeded to Talwandi, the birth place of Guru Nanak.
He imparted religious instructions to the people who had gathered
there in connection with the Namani fair. From there he proceeded
to Madai. Next stop was at Manga in Lahore district. From there
he returned to Amritsar where as usual great rejoicing were held
in his honor.
During Shah Jahan's reign all those persons and
groups who had enmity towards the Guru, were constantly on the
look-out for some opportunity to strike him and impede the onward
march of Sikh movement. Tara Chand, the ruler of Hadur or Kehlur
(Nalagarh) had waited upon the Guru and requested him to pay a
visit to his state. In view of these circumstances the Guru had
an idea of alternative headquarters. He sent his son Baba Gurditta
to Tara Chand and promised him to visit his state later on. The
Raja offered a piece of land for his permanent abode. Some writers
say that the land was purchased from him. Baba Gurditta founded
the town of Kiratpur on that piece of land.
Malwa region was still a vast tract of waste land
and its people were still uncommitted to any religion. The Guru,
therefore, undertook great tour of this region. He visited Zira,
Rode Lande, Gill, Kotra and Hari. After that he visited Marajh,
Dabwalli, Bhadaur, Mahal, Ded Maluke, Demru and then reached Darauli.
Before departure, he blessed the people of Darauli and gave them
a 'pothi' and a small katar (a small sword) as monuments. He visited
Bara Ghar, Mado, Lopo, Sidhwan and then reached Sidhar. Rai Jodh,
a big landlord of Kangar inspired by his wife Bhagan who was a
daughter of Bhag Mal Gill, a devotee of the Guru, waited upon
him. He was so much impressed that he desired to enter the Sikh
fold. The Guru initiated him, his brother Umar Shah and many others
of their families.
The people came in flocks and embraced Sikhism
specially in Malwa region. For the first time in history of Indian
religions, the people were coming across a religious leader who
was committed to the ideal of resisting all types of exploitations,
injustice and tyranny. In fact the Guru's close identification
with the lower and down-trodden classes and his constant endeavors
for their welfare and uplift made him the cynosure of the masses.
The Guru had five sons and one daughter. They
Baba Gurditta was born to Mata Damodri in 1613.
Bibi Viro was born to Mata Damodri in 1615.
Baba Surj Mal was born to Mata Marwahi in 1617.
Baba Ani Rai was born to Mata Nanaki in 1618.
Baba Atal Rai was born to Mata Nanaki in 1619.
Baba Tegh Bahadur was born to Mata Nanaki in 1621.
There lived a Sikh, Gurmukh in Amritsar who had
the only son, Mohan. Baba Atal and Mohan used to play together.
One day they played until nightfall. The victory remained with
Baba Atal and it was agreed upon that the play would be resumed
the next morning. When Mohan went out, he was bitten by a cobra
and the boy succumbed to death. Next morning Baba Atal Rai went
to Mohan's house and was told that Mohan was dead. Baba Atal did
not believe that he was dead and he lifted the dead Mohan to life.
Upon this the Guru angrily addressed to his son," You must
be working miracles, while I teach men to obey God's Will."
Baba Atal replied," Great King, may you live for ages, I
depart for Sachkhand (heaven)." By saying this, he left and
went to bathe in the tank of nectar. After his ablutions, he circumambulated
the Golden Temple four times. As he finished his morning devotions,
his light blended with the Light of God when he was nine years
Guru Har Gobind narrated all the circumstances
to his eldest son Gurditta and sent him to Budhan Shah, whose
devotion he commended. Baba Gurditta took his wife Natti and his
son Dhir Mal and met Budhan Shah on the bank of river Satluj.
Baba Gurditta reminded,"O priest, thou hast the milk that
was entrusted to thee. Bring that to me. The Guru is my father,
and he has sent me to taste it." Budhan Shah gave the milk
and it is said that it was as fresh as it had been set. Baba Gurditta
and his wife Natti continued to reside in Kiratpur. A son was
born to them on January 16, 1630 and they called him Har Rai.
Bhai Buddha remained in his village of Ramdas
intent on his devotions. When he saw his end near, he asked for
the Guru to come and fulfil his promise once he made to him. He
told him,"Bhai Buddha, you have lived long, you have been
ever with the Gurus. Give some instruction." Bhai Buddha
replied,"Great King, thou art a sun, I am a fire-fly before
thee. You have come to save me, and to hear my dying words........I
have been a servant of the Guru's house for six generations. Succor
me in the next world, and allow me not to suffer when I enter
death's door, which I fondly hope is the portal of salvation.
Here is my son, Bhana at your service; take his arm and keep him
at your feet." The Guru replied,"Bhai Buddha, you shall
assuredly obtain bliss. Your humility is an assurance." He
then put his hand on Bhai Buddha's head and blessed him who then
left for his heavenly abode. The Guru and his Sikhs sang congratulations
on the event of Bhai Buddha's death after his long, holy and eventful
life, and lauded him for the assistance he had given in the propagation
and consolidation of Sikh faith. The Guru himself ignited his
Bhai Gurdas was a contemporary of the fourth,
fifth and sixth Gurus and was acquainted with them and their contemporaries,
especially Bhai Buddha, an aged Sikh who had survived from the
time of Guru Nanak. The tenets of Sikh religion are given in Bhai
Gurdas's Vars. There are forty Vars in number and each is divided
in varying number of pauries (stanzas) and each pauri contains
from five to ten lines.
One morning the Guru went to Bhai Gurdas whose
end was now approaching. He begged pardon for any sins he might
have committed. The Guru replied," I thank thee, Bhai Gurdas,
for having assisted in laying out the road of the Sikh faith.
Among the Gurus' Sikhs thy name shall be immortal." Having
heard this Bhai Gurdas meditated on God and drew a sheet over
him and closed his eyes in eternal sleep on Friday the fifth day
of the light half of Bhadon, Sambat 1686 (1629 A.D.). After performing
the last rites he returned to Amritsar.
GURU AT KIRATPUR:
He lived in Kiratpur from 1635 to 1644. He chose
Kiratpur, a city in the foothill of the Himalayas, which was not
so easily accessible during those days of undeveloped and scanty
means of transportation and communication, to ward off any further
hostility between the Sikhs and the Mughal government after the
confrontation of four battles. There were hilly Rajas who were
great admirers of the Guru because he was instrumental in getting
them released from the fort of Gwalior and some of them had developed
veneration for Sikhism. These are some of the circumstances in
which the Guru seemed to have set up his headquarters at Kiratpur.
When he was busy in the battle field, Baba Gurditta
was incharge to look after the organizational work. In 1636 the
Guru asked Baba Gurditta to appoint four head preachers: Almast,
Phul, Gonda and Baba Hasna. Almast was made the chief organizer
of the proselytizing activities in the east. Baba Hasna who was
the younger brother of Almast, established himself among the people
of Pothohar, Kashmir, Chhachh and Hazara. Similarly Phul and Gonda
were assigned the area of Doab to carry on the proselytizing work.
All these four Udasis were founded in their allotted areas, preaching
centers which were named as Dhuans or Hearths, to symbolize the
flame of Sikhism. Besides this the Guru sent Bidhi Chand to Bengal.
He had sent Bhai Gurdas earlier to Kabul and then to Banaras to
enlighten the people on Guru's gospel and also to encourage trade
One day Baba Gurditta went for a hunting trip.
It so happened that one of his Sikhs shot a cow by mistake for
a deer. The shepherds came and arrested the offending Sikh. Baba
Gurditta went to his assistance and offered to give compensation.
The shepherds would have from the Guru's son (Gurditta) nothing
less than the restoration of the cow to life. If he restored the
cow to life, the Guru would be angry as he was before in the case
of Baba Atal and if he refused to satisfy the shepherds, they
would detain his Sikh as a hostage. He was at last persuaded to
reanimate the cow. When it was reported to the Guru, he remarked,"It
is not pleasing to me that any one should set himself up as God's
equal, and restore life to the dead. Everybody will be bringing
the dead to my door, and whom shall I select for reanimation?"
Baba Gurditta replied," Mayest thou live for ever! I depart."
He went to Budhan Shah's shrine, drove his cane into the ground,
lay down, and left for his heavenly abode at the early age of
twenty-four in 1638.
After this the Guru sent for Baba Gurditta's eldest
son, Dhir Mal, from Kartarpur, and also for the Adi Granth which
was in his custody. He intended that the holy volume should be
read for the repose of Gurditta's soul, and also that Dhir Mal
should be present to receive a turban after his father's death
in token of succession to his property and position. Dhir Mal
declined the invitation saying,"My father is not in Kiratpur.
To whom shall I go? It is through fear of the Guru my father died.
I do not desire to die yet. I will myself have the Adi Granth
read for my father." Thus he kept holy scripture thinking
that whosoever had its custody would be the Guru. Bhai Bidhi Chand
had unfinished copy of the Adi Granth which was read at that time.
One day the Guru's wife Mata Nanaki asked him,"O my lord,
you always show great kindness to Har Rai, who is your grandson,
but you never show regard to your own son Tegh Bahadur. Fulfil
my wishes to put him on your throne." The Guru replied,"
Tegh Bahadur is a Guru of Gurus. There is none who can endure
the unendurable so well as he. He has obtained divine knowledge
and renounced worldly love. If you have patience, the Guruship
shall revert to him."
A day was appointed for a great assemblage. When
all were present, Guru Har Gobind rose, took Har Rai by the hand
and seated him on the throne of Guru Nanak. Bhai Bhana, son of
Bhai Buddha, affixed the tilak to Har Rai's forehead and decorated
him with a necklace of flowers. The Guru putting five paise and
a coco-nut in front of him, bowed before him declaring him the
Guru, and addressed the Sikhs,"In Har Rai now recognize me.
The spiritual power of Guru Nanak hath entered him." Upon
this the Sikhs shouted congratulations and minstrels began to
After this Guru Har Gobind left this world in
March, 1644 at Kiratpur.
When the last rites were completed, Mata Nanaki
and her son Tegh Bahadur set out, according to the Guru's order,
for Bakala, where they both lived until Tegh Bahadur obtained
FN-1: Wazir Khan was the viceroy of Punjab at
the time of Guru Arjan. He was suffering from dropsy and was completely
restored to health by hearing the recitation of Sukhmani, upon
which he became Guru's follower.
FN-2: Some writers charge that the Guru was imprisoned
on account of money due. If this or any other case was the cause
of his imprisonment, how could he get the release of fifty-two
Rajas from the Fort? The Guru was on good terms with the Emperor.
On his illness Jahangir requested the Guru to go to the Gwalior
Fort and in return the Emperor conceded to the Guru's wish to
release the princes.
FN-3:Kahan Singh, a Sikh historian, writes that
she was a Hindu girl named Kamla. Qazi Rustam Khan purchased her
and kept her as slave. She was taught Islam.
FN-4:Some writers say that it was neither Shah
Jahan nor the Guru, but there were only their respective men.
FN-5:Some writers say that Bidhi Chand never met
Some writers claim that it was Guru Har Gobind himself who asked
Budhan Shah for milk. When Guru Nanak met Budhan Shah, he offered
milk to the Guru as a mark of respect. The Guru promised that
he would drink milk later on. Now Guru Har Gobind reminded Budhan
Shah of the milk he promised to drink. Budhan Shah said,"You
do not look like the Guru I gave the milk." Upon this Guru
Har Gobind appeared in the appearance of Guru Nanak before Budhan
Shah and accepted the milk to fulfil the promise.